China on Thursday released a white paper on its cyberspace rule of law, elaborating on the achievement of the country's law-based cyberspace governance in the past three decades.
Remarkable achievements have been made in China's cyber legislation over the past 10 years, with five specialized laws enacted, said the spokesperson of the Standing Committee of the National People's Congress.
Since 1994, when China was fully connected to the internet, it has accelerated legislation in cyberspace and promulgated more than 140 relevant laws.
The white paper, titled "China's Law-Based Cyberspace Governance in the New Era," contains six chapters, including upholding the rule of law in cyberspace, consolidating the legal system, defending fairness and justice in cyberspace and increasing international exchanges and cooperation in the law-based cyberspace governance.
China ensured a national coordinated response in dealing with cyberspace governance, which combines the efforts of multiple departments, local governments, enterprises and netizens, said Cao Shumin, deputy director of the Cyberspace Administration of China (CAC).
Since the Cybersecurity Law enacted in 2016, an online real-name system has been implemented, and measures have been put in place to safeguard the security of network products, services, operation and critical information infrastructure.
In 2018, the Electronic Commerce Law was promulgated, regularizing e-commerce operations and strengthening the protection of consumers' rights and intellectual property rights.
The Data Security Law, promulgated in 2021, has enhanced national data security capabilities and promoted lawful, rational and effective use of data. In the same year, the Personal Information Protection Law was implemented to improve personal privacy protection and safeguard people's rights and interests.
According to the white paper, China has advanced its cyberspace governance through legislation that is enacted "in a well-conceived and democratic way," contributing to "systematic, holistic, coordinated, and time-efficient" cyber legislation.
The paper also notes China's success in integrating Internet technology into the judicial activities — in the fields of judicial proceedings, judgment enforcement and judicial administration.
A separate priority for regulators remains the protection of personal information on the Internet. For example, regular actions have been carried out against mobile applications which collect and use personal data illegally.
Since 2019, China has inspected 3.22 million mobile applications, issuing notice of criticism to or removing nearly 3,000 applications that violated laws and regulations, said the white paper.